biographies of four great mathematician in the world?

short details of four mathematician in the world

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  • 1 decade ago
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    1) Augusta Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace born Augusta Ada Byron, is mainly known for having written a description of Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. She is today appreciated as the "first programmer" since she was writing programs -- that is, manipulating symbols according to rules -- for a machine that Babbage had not yet built.

    Lovelace, born December 10, 1815, was the first child of the poet Lord Byron and his wife, Annabella. On January 16, 1816, Annabella left Byron, taking one-month-old Ada with her. Although English law gave fathers full custody of their children in cases of separation, Byron made no attempt to claim his parental rights. On April 21, Byron signed the Deed of Separation and left England for good a few days later.

    Lovelace never met her younger half-sister, Allegra Byron, daughter of Lord Byron and Claire Clairmont, who died at the age of five in 1822. Lovelace did have some contact with Elizabeth Medora Leigh, the daughter of Byron's half-sister Augusta Leigh. Lovelace and Medora were told by Ada's mother that Byron was Medora's father.

    Lovelace was often ill starting in her early childhood. At eight she experienced head aches that obscured her vision. In June 1829, she was paralyzed after a bout of the measles. Lady Byron subjected the girl to continuous bed rest for nearly a year, which may have extended her period of disability. By 1831 she was able to walk with crutches. Throughout her illnesses, Lovelace continued her education.[6]

    Lady Byron was also highly interested in mathematics, which dominated her life, even after marriage. Her obsession with rooting out any of the insanity of which she accused Lord Byron was one of the reasons why Annabella taught Lovelace mathematics at an early age. Lovelace was privately home schooled in mathematics and science by William Frend, William King and Mary Somerville. One of her later tutors was Augustus De Morgan.

    An active member of London society, she was a member of the Bluestockings in her youth.

    In 1835 she married William King, 8th Baron King, later 1st Earl of Lovelace. They had three children; Byron born 12 May 1836, Annabella (Lady Anne Blunt) born 22 September 1837 and Ralph Gordon born 2 July 1839. The family lived at Ockham Park, at Ockham, Surrey. Her full name and title for most of her married life was The Right Honourable Augusta Ada, Countess of Lovelace. She is widely known in modern times simply as Ada Lovelace, or by her maiden name, Ada Byron.

    She knew and was taught by Mary Somerville, noted researcher and scientific author of the 19th century, who introduced her in turn to Charles Babbage on June 5, 1833. Other acquaintances were Sir David Brewster, Charles Wheatstone, Charles Dickens and Michael Faraday.

    During a nine-month period in 1842–1843, Lovelace translated Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea's memoir on Babbage's newest proposed machine, the Analytical Engine.

    Lovelace met and corresponded with Charles Babbage on many occasions, including socially and in relation to Babbage's Difference Engine and Analytical Engine. Their relationship was not principally of a romantic nature.

    Ada Lovelace was bled to death at the age of 36 by her physicians, who were trying to cure her uterine cancer. She was buried next to the father she never knew at the Church of St. Mary Magdalene in Hucknall, Nottingham. Over one hundred years after her death, in 1953, Lovelace's notes on Babbage's Analytical Engine were republished after being forgotten.

    2) Maria Gaetana Agnesi (May 16, 1718 - January 9, 1799) was an Italian linguist, mathematician, and philosopher. Agnesi is credited with writing the first book discussing both differential and integral calculus. She was an honorary member of the faculty at the University of Bologna. According to Dirk Jan Struik, Agnesi is "the first important woman mathematician since Hypatia (fifth century A.D.)".

    Her father, Pietro, was a wealthy man of business who desired to elevate his family into the Milanese nobility. (Some historians have incorrectly identified him as a mathematics professor.)

    Maria was recognized as a child prodigy very early; she could speak both French and Italian at five years of age. By her eleventh birthday she had acquired Greek, Hebrew, Spanish, German, Latin, and was referred to as the "Walking Polyglot". She even educated her younger brothers. When she was 9 years old, she composed and delivered an hour-long speech in Latin to an academic gathering. The subject was women's right to be educated. When she was fifteen, her father began to regularly gather in his house a circle of the most learned men in Bologna, before whom she read and maintained a series of theses on the most abstruse philosophical questions. Records of these meetings are given in Charles de Brosses|de Brosses' Lettres sur l'Italie and in the Propositiones Philosophicae, which her father had published in 1738. These displays, being probably not altogether congenial to Maria (who wanted to retire) ceased by her twentieth year because she strongly desired to enter a convent at that time. Although her father refused to grant this wish, he agreed to let her live from that time on in an almost conventual semi-retirement, avoiding all interactions with society and devoting herself entirely to the study of mathematics. During that time, Maria studied both differential and integral calculus. Pietro Agnesi also married twice more after Maria's mother died, so that Maria Agnesi ended up the eldest of 21 children. In addition to her performances and lessons, her responsibility was to teach her siblings. This task kept her from her own goal of entering a convent.

    The most valuable result of her labours was the Instituzioni analitiche ad uso della gioventu italiana, a work of great merit, which was published at Milan in 1748 and "was regarded as the best introduction extant to the works of Euler." The first volume treats of the analysis of finite quantities and the second of the analysis of infinitesimals. A French translation of the second volume by P. T. d'Antelmy, with additions by Charles Bossut (1730-1814), appeared at Paris in 1775; and an English translation of the whole work by John Colson (1680-1760), the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, "inspected" by John Hellins, was published in 1801 at the expense of Baron Maseres.

    Madame Agnesi also wrote a commentary on the Traite analytique des sections coniques of the marquis de l'Hôpital, which, though highly praised by those who saw it in manuscript, was never published. She discussed the curve known as the "witch of Agnesi" or "versiera" as she named it in 1748. (Italian for the rope that turns a sail, taken from the Latin "versoria," meaning "to turn," which was the term used by Luigi Grandi before her." Colson, who translated Agnesi's text to English, perhaps confused "la versiera" with "l'avversiera", and so mistranslated it as "she-devil" or "the witch", with the result that English-speakers and, for some reason, Spanish speakers from Mexico, Cuba, and Spain, know the curve as the "Witch of Agnesi" (La Bruja de Agnesi).).

    In 1750, on the illness of her father, she was appointed by Pope Benedict XIV to the chair of mathematics and natural philosophy at Bologna. She was the second woman to be appointed professor at a university. After the death of her father in 1752 she carried out a long-cherished purpose by giving herself to the study of theology, and especially of the Fathers and devoted herself to the poor, homeless, and sick. After holding for some years the office of directress of the Hospice Trivulzio for Blue Nuns at Milan, she herself joined the sisterhood, and in this austere order ended her days, but no one knows how she died. A crater on Venus was named in her honor.

    3) Hypatia of Alexandria is considered the first notable woman in mathematics. She lived in Roman Egypt, and was killed by a Coptic Christian mob who blamed her for religious turmoil. Hypatia was the daughter of Theon, who was her teacher and the last known mathematician associated with of the Musaeum of Alexandria. She traveled to both Athens and Italy to study, before becoming head of the Platonist school at Alexandria in approximately 400 CE, According to the Byzantine Suda, she worked as teacher of philosophy, teaching the works of Plato and Aristotle.

    Although Hypatia was herself a pagan, she was respected by a number of Christians, and later held up by Christian authors as a symbol of virtue. Hypatia rebuffed a suitor by showing him her menstrual rags, claiming they demonstrated that there was "nothing beautiful" about carnal desires.

    The contemporary Christian historiographer Socrates Scholasticus described her in his Ecclesiastical History.

    Many of the works commonly attributed to Hypatia are believed to have been collaborative works with her father.

    A partial list of specific accomplishments:

    A commentary on the 13-volume Arithmetica by Diophantus

    Edited the third book of her father's commentary on Ptolemy's Almagest

    Edited her father's commentary on Euclid's Elements

    Edited a commentary that simplified Apollonius's Conics

    She wrote the text The Astronomical Canon

    Her contributions to science are reputed to include the charting of celestial bodies and the invention of the hydrometer, used to determine the relative density and gravity of liquids.

    Her pupil Synesius wrote a letter defending her as the inventor of the astrolabe, although earlier astrolabes predate Hypatia's model by at least a century - and her father had gained fame for his treatise on the subject.

    Believed to have been the

  • 4 years ago

    Vedic Apastamba Baudhayana Katyayana Manava Panini, ca. 5th c. BC, Algebraic grammarian Yajnavalkya, credited with authorship of the Shatapatha Brahmana, which contains calculations related to altar construction. Classical Post-Vedic Sanskrit to Pala period mathematicians (5th c. BC to 11th c. AD) Aryabhata - Astronomer who gave accurate calculations for astronomical constants, 476-520 Aryabhata II Bhaskara I Bhaskara II Brahmagupta - Helped bring the concept of zero into arithmetic Mahavira Matanga Muni - Combinatorics in music Varahamihira Shridhara (between 650-850) - Gave a good rule for finding the volume of a sphere. [edit]Medieval to Mughal period 13th century to 1800.13th century, Logician, mithila school Pakshadhara, son of Gangehsa, Logician, Mithila school Shankara Mishra, Logician, Mithila school Narayana Pandit Madhava of Sangamagramasome elements of Calculus Parameshvara (1360-1455), discovered drk-ganita, a modeof astronomy based on observations, Madhava's Kerala school Nilakantha Somayaji,1444-1545 - Mathematician and Astronomer, Madhava's Kerala school Mahendra Suri (14th century) Shankara Variyar (c. 1530) Vasudeva Sarvabhauma, 1450-1525, Logician, Navadvipa school Raghunatha Shiromani, (1475-1550), Logician, Navadvipa school Jyeshtadeva , 1500-1610, Author of Yuktibhasa, Madhava's Kerala school Achyuta Pisharati, 1550-1621, Astronomer/mathematician, Madhava's Kerala school Mathuranatha Tarkavagisha, c. 1575, Logician, Navadvipa school Jagadisha Tarkalankara, c. 1625, Logician, Navadvipa school Gadadhara Bhattacharya, c. 1650, Logician, Navadvipa school Munishvara (17th century) Kamalakara (1657) Jagannatha Samrat (1730) [edit]Born in 1800s Ramchundra (1821 - 1880) Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920) A. A. Krishnaswami Ayyangar (1892-1953) Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis (1893-1972) Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974) Sanjeev Shah (1803- 1896) Raghunath Purushottam Paranjape [edit]Born in 1900s Vijay Manohar (1901-1987) S. N. Roy (1906-1966) Sarvadaman Chowla (1907-1995) Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910-1995) D. K. Ray-Chaudhuri Harish-Chandra (1920-1983) Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao (1920-) Shreeram Shankar Abhyankar (1930-) Ramdas Lotu Bhirud(1937-1997) Jayant Narlikar (1938-) Srinivasa Varadhan (1940-) Vijay Kumar Patodi (1945-1976) Narendra Karmarkar (1957-) Mathukumalli V. Subbarao (1921-2006) Navin M. Singhi S. S. Shrikhande Raj Chandra Bose Canjeevaram Srirangachari Seshadri Narasimhan, M. S. Parthasarathy, K. R. Ramanujam, C. P. Raghavan Narsimhan Ramanan, S. Raghunathan, M. S. Madhav Nori Ramenjit Singh Gaurav Agrawal Manindra Agrawal (1966-) Akhil Sarikonda (1997 and on) [hide] v • d • e Indian mathematics Mathematicians Shreeram Shankar Abhyankar · Apastamba · Aryabhata I · Aryabhata II · A. A. Krishnaswami Ayyangar · Baudhayana · Bhāskara I · Bhāskara II · Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri · Raj Chandra Bose · Satyendra Nath Bose · Brahmadeva · Brahmagupta · Brihaddeshi · Harish-Chandra · Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar · D. K. Ray-Chaudhuri · Sarvadaman Chowla · Halayudha · Jyesthadeva · Katyayana · Narendra Karmarkar · Madhava of Sangamagrama · Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis · Mahavira · Mahendra Suri · Manava · Munishvara · Narayana Pandit · Jayant Narlikar · Pāṇini · Parameshvara · Vijay Kumar Patodi · Pingala · Achyuta Pisharati · Srinivasa Ramanujan · Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao · S. N. Roy · Jagannatha Samrat · S. S. Shrikhande · Navin M. Singhi · Nilakantha Somayaji · Sripati · Sridhara · Mathukumalli V. Subbarao · Gangesha Upadhyaya · Varahamihira · Shankara Variyar · Virasena · Yajnavalkya

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