A list of reforms of Alexander II of Russia?

Hi,

I am writing an essay on the Russian Revolution and I need talk about the reforms of Alexander II.

Could you please provide a list of those reforms?

and also, can you please outline the difference between a serf and peasant?

Thanks.

4 Answers

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  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    Alexander reformed many things about Russia. This was a response the Russia's backwardness that was exposed by the Crimean War of the 1850s. Alexander attempted to reform agriculture to pay for the industrial investment and to directly invest in industrialising the country.

    Socially, he freed the serfs. But they had to buy their freedom and many could not afford the 50 year repayments. The land was not given to them, it was given to the village council - the Mir. The Mir then divided up the land according to who had the greatest need - so a family with a lot of children would get more land than a family with one child. If, however, someones children died, their land was re-allocated to others. All land was reapportioned on a regular (I think 5 year basis), so there was no incentive to improve the land. this was also implemented in order to free up the workforce so they could move to the new industrial centres.

    Economically he drew up plans for a massive investment in railways - (put in place under Alexander III). The emancipation, he hoped would lead to greater agricultural output, in order to finance the railways, and the beginnings of Russia's industrialisation. He also invested in new iron and steel works - for armaments, new textiles factories - for uniforms, and new manufacturing industries - for arms and ammunition.

    Politically he instituted new provincial councils - zemstvos, and town councils, he also reformed the army & navy, along the British model. He hoped that his reforms would quell the growing Narodnik movement (radical peasants who wanted to own the land on which they worked and a form of rural socialism) and, in the cities, the growing popularity of Marxism.

    The difference between a serf and a peasant is that a serf is the property of the landlord, and has to work for him for free for a certain amount of time during the year - normally during sowing and harvest.

    A peasant is free, but normally holds land from the landlord, paying, often in grain or other crops, for the rent.

    See:

    http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSalexander2...

    http://www.history.org.uk/resources/secondary_reso...

  • pavlac
    Lv 4
    4 years ago

    Alexander Ii Of Russia

  • ?
    Lv 5
    1 decade ago

    While he is most well known for emancipating the serfs Alexander II made many more reforms.

    Army and navy re-organization (1874), probably inspired by the 1871 British law, pushed since 1851, in view of the British military incompetence at the Crimea War, by "Sheffield, the steel town of the North" Radical - Independent Member of the British Parliament John Arthur Roebuck.

    A new judicial administration based on the French model (1864); a new penal code and a greatly simplified system of civil and criminal procedure.

    An elaborate scheme of local self-government (Zemstvo) for the rural districts (1864) and the large towns (1870), with elective assemblies possessing a restricted right of taxation, and a new rural and municipal police under the direction of the Minister of the Interior.

    Alexander II would be the second monarch (after King Louis I of Portugal) to abolish capital punishment, a penalty which is still legal (although not practised) in Russia.

    However, the workers wanted better working conditions; persecuted national minorities, "integrated" only in the last 50 or 60 years or so, wanted freedom.

    When radicals began to resort to the formation of secret societies and to revolutionary agitation, Alexander II felt constrained to adopt severe repressive measures.

    The idea that some moderate liberal reforms, in an attempt to quell the revolutionary agitation, will do, and the creation of special commissions as proven by an ukase he delivered would not do either. The Marxist idea of countries being liberated from capitalism and soviets of workers united for the World Revolution, but respecting their own national characteristics, was clearly out of place within the Russian land aggregation processes of the 17th, 18th and 19th Centuries.

  • Anonymous
    6 years ago

    RE:

    A list of reforms of Alexander II of Russia?

    Hi,

    I am writing an essay on the Russian Revolution and I need talk about the reforms of Alexander II.

    Could you please provide a list of those reforms?

    and also, can you please outline the difference between a serf and peasant?

    Thanks.

    Source(s): list reforms alexander ii russia: https://trimurl.im/h46/a-list-of-reforms-of-alexan...
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