Did Montgomery let African Americans sit at the front of the bus?
I know that Montgomery banned African Americans to sit at the front of the bus, but when Martin Luther King, Jr went to court to fight against the whole issue, and won the case, did Montgomery change their laws and let African Americans sit at the front?
I have an assignment, and I just need to know if they unbanned the whole idea.
Thank you so much.
- 10 years agoFavorite Answer
Okay, let me help you straighten this out a little bit.
You are basically asking about a singular incident during the American Civil Rights Movement, considered by most as the FIRST "movement" of the Civil Rights Movement.
The "Montgomery Bus Boycott" was a political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system.
December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person
She was found guilty on December 5, and was fined $10 plus a court cost of $4 but she appealed. The boycott was triggered by her arrest.
Prior to ACRM, blacks in the US South were allowed to sit in the front of the bus as long as there was not a white person needing a seat.
The bus company in Montogomery, Alabama had especially shown it's *** pertaining to these "rules" of enforcement for the years and Rosa Parks was not the first person to experience these problems, in fact, this was Ms Park's SECOND incident of the kind with them.
And just prior to this incident another female, young and pregnant had an identical experience.
The NAACP was prepared and ready for another one when it happened -- and Ms Park's situation was almost immediate.
Dr King was NOT the "star" in this event, E.D. Nixon, president of the local NAACP chapter and a member of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was.
Nixon intended that her arrest be a test case to allow Montgomery's black citizens to challenge segregation on the city's public buses.
Ralph Abernathy and Rev. E.N. French selected a young minister from Atlanta to head up the new 'Montgomery Improvement Association' ("MIA") to the city, and selected Dr King to lead the boycott.
Nixon wanted King to lead the boycott because the young minister was new to Montgomery and the city fathers had not had time to intimidate him.
The boycott lasted from the arrest of Ms Rosa Parks, December 1, 1955 to the to December 20, 1956 when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional.
Browder v. Gayle, 142 F. Supp. 707 (1956), was the case heard before the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Alabama regarding Montgomery bus segregation laws.
It was the US District Court's ruling in this case that ended segregation on Montgomery public buses.
Attorneys Fred Gray, E.D. Nixon and Clifford Durr (a white lawyer who, with his wife Virginia, was an activist in the civil rights movement) searched for the ideal case law to challenge the constitutional legitimacy of Montgomery and Alabama bus segregation laws.
Gray approached Colvin (The young pregnant girl) , Aurelia Browder, Susie McDonald, and Mary Louise Smith, who were all women who had been mistreated by the Montgomery bus system.
They all agreed to become plaintiffs in a civil action law suit.
June 4, 1956, the federal district court ruled that Alabama's racial segregation laws for buses were unconstitutional.
However, an appeal kept the segregation intact, and the boycott continued until, finally, on November 13, 1956, the Supreme Court upheld the district court's ruling.
This victory led to a city ordinance that allowed black bus passengers to sit virtually anywhere they wanted, and the boycott officially ended December 20, 1956.
So.... just over a year from Ms Parks arrest, the Supreme Court decision banned "seat discrimination" and blacks ended the bus boycott in Alabama.
Supreme Court decision would be nationwide and not just for Alabama.
This is considered the first victory of the Civil Rights Movement.
- bridluc772000Lv 510 years ago
Not right away, the fight continued well into the 1960's even after the boycott when Bull connor would hose down and send out the dogs to attack the blacks in the city.
- Anonymous4 years ago