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What chemical theory explains the difference in boiling points used for fractionation?

Help would be much appreciated

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  • 10 years ago
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    Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. It is a special type of distillation. Generally the component parts boil at less than 25 °C from each other under a pressure of one atmosphere (atm). If the difference in boiling points is greater than 25 °C, a simple distillation is used.

    Apparatus

    Fractional distillation apparatus using a Liebig condenser. A conical flask is used as a receiving flask. Here the distillation head and fractionating column are combined in one piece.[1]heat source, such as a hot plate with a bath, and ideally with a magnetic stirrer.

    distilling flask, typically a round-bottom flask

    receiving flask, often also a round-bottom flask

    fractionating column

    distillation head

    thermometer and adapter if needed

    condenser, such as a Liebig condenser, Graham condenser or Allihn condenser

    vacuum adapter (not used in image to the right)

    boiling chips, also known as anti-bumping granules

    Standard laboratory glassware with ground glass joints, e.g. quickfit apparatus.

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