Candy asked in Arts & HumanitiesHistory · 9 years ago

What was the Ohio Valley Battles about? In great detail.?

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  • 9 years ago
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    You really need to read about the French and Indian War.

    With the arrival of the Europeans, the region was claimed by both Great Britain and France, which both sent merchants into the area to trade with the Ohio Country Indians. The region was also claimed by the Iroquois by right of conquest. The rivalry between the two European nations, the Iroquois, and the Ohio natives for control of the region played an important part of the French and Indian War in the 1750s. After initially remaining neutral, the Ohio Country Indians largely sided with the French. Armed with supplies and guns from the French, they undertook brutal raids via the Kittanning Path against British settlers east of the Alleghenies. After one such raid destroyed Fort Granville in the summer of 1756, colonial governor John Penn ordered Lt. Colonel John Armstrong to destroy the Shawnee villages west of the Alleghenies. The war ended with the defeat of the French and their allies. Meanwhile other British and colonial forces were driving the French from Fort Duquesne and building Fort Pitt, the origin of the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The 1763 Treaty of Paris gave control of the entire Ohio region to Great Britain, through the various colonies who laid claim to parts of it.

    George III in his Royal Proclamation of 1763 placed Ohio Country in the vast Indian Reserve stretching from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River and from Florida to Newfoundland. Existing settlers (mostly French) were ordered to leave or get special permission to stay.

    Despite its acquisition by Great Britain, the area remained officially closed to white settlement by the Proclamation of 1763, which arose in part of the British desire to regain peaceful relations with the Shawnee and other tribes in the region. This proclamation also effectively established that the Crown no longer recognized claims of the colonies made on the land. On June 22, 1774, the parliament passed the Quebec Act which annexed this region to the province of Quebec, and was referred to as one of the Intolerable Acts leading to the American Revolution.

    Despite the actions of the Crown, frontiersmen from the Virginia and Pennsylvania colonies had begun crossing the Allegheny Mountains and coming into conflict with the Shawnee. The Shawnee referred to the settlers as the Long Knives, and the realization of the threat they posed led the Shawnee, as well as the other tribes of the Ohio Nations, to side with the British against the Americans during the American Revolutionary War.

    The desire of the Americans to establish control over the region was strong. In 1778, after victories in the region by American General George Rogers Clark, the Virginia legislature organized the first civil government in the region, called the Illinois County, which encompassed all of the lands lying west of the Ohio River to which Virginia had any claim. The high-water mark of the Native American struggle to retain the region was in 1782, when the Ohio Nations and the British met in a council at the Chalawgatha village along the Little Miami River and planned the successful rout of the Americans at the Battle of Blue Licks south of the Ohio River two weeks later.

    In 1783, following the Treaty of Paris, the area became part of the original territory of the United States and was immediately opened to legal settlement. The Ohio Country quickly became one of the most desirable locations for Trans-Appalachian settlements, in particular among veterans of the American Revolutionary War.

    Several treaties such as the Treaty of Fort McIntosh in 1785 and the Treaty of Fort Harmar in 1789 fixed boundaries between American and tribal lands. Some tribes such as the Shawnee however continued to resist the encroachment of settlement into their lands. This resistance led to the Northwest Indian War which lasted until 1795.

    By 1800, many of the Shawnee had ceded their lands to control of the United States in exchange for lands in Missouri. The last great resistance to white settlement in the area was during the War of 1812, when Tecumseh led a disastrous war against the Americans. By 1817, the Shawnee, as well as the other Algonquian-speaking tribes in the region, had ceded all their lands to the United States.

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