How does the "holistic" approach to race-based affirmative action in college admissions work?
From what I understand, the Supreme court has banned the use race quotas, but said race could still be taken into account to achieve diversity. Consequently many schools now claim they use a "holistic" approach in their admissions, taking into account not only race, but also socioeconomic status, extracurriculars, personality, etc to achieve a diverse student body. In practice, how does this work?
Is there a standardized approach to avoid application reviewer bias? If so is there a point based system for each category (race, GPA, test scores, income, etc.)? If so which category has the most weight? As for race, which race would give you the highest score and which the lowest?
Also if you're not allowed to have quotas, how do you keep track of how diverse your current student body is so that you know how many more of each racial groups you need? And which racial groups do you use and how do you define each race?
What do you do when race is left blank on the application? What if someone is mixed race?
If suspect someone is lying about their race, how do you prove/disprove it? Genetic testing? Genealogy research? Or do you have someone trained to accurately guess people's race just by looking at them?
Is there a regulatory body that audits the school's diversity? If so what measures do they use?
I know this is a lot of questions, but I am genuinely curious as this "holistic" approach seems very mysterious to me.
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